As we have commented on various posts, employees that are terminated without cause from their employment are entitled to a severance package in accordance with the Employment Standards Act (ESA) in Ontario and the common law. Those employees that are terminated for cause from their employment may also be entitled to severance pay so long as the ‘misconduct’ that was used to justify the dismissal does not rise to the level of ‘just cause’ as determined by Court precedent.
The calculation of severance pay is dependent on each specific circumstance. For certain, an employee in Ontario is entitled to the minimum amounts of notice of termination, or payment in lieu of notice of termination, in accordance with the ESA (provincial employment standards legislation) as described in more detail here and here. To reiterate, the ESA sets out the minimum rights of an employee upon termination. There is a presumption that an employee is also entitled to reasonable notice of termination or payment in lieu thereof, in accordance with the principals enunciated by the common law in Ontario.
The common law refers to judge-made law and is comprised of the body of precedent cases that have been heard and ruled on in this province. Judges are required to follow-up and/or be persuaded by similar precedent cases when rendering judgments. Accordingly, over-time, various principals have been established via Court precedent to determine the quantum of severance pay an employee is entitled to upon termination of employment.
The well-documents factors include, but are not limited to the following:
- The Terms of An Employment Contract or Offer of Employment
Many cases (precedents) have touched on termination clauses in employment agreements. In order to reduce the severance pay owing to an employee upon termination in Ontario, an employer can draft a clear and unambiguous termination provision, which limits an employees’ rights to severance pay upon termination to the statutory minimum (thereby rebutting the presumption of entitlement to common law or reasonable notice).
If you have been terminated from your employment, it is of paramount importance that your employment contract is reviewed to determine whether the precise wording of the termination provision in your employment contract would be enforceable by a Court or not. Specific language around statutory notice, benefits continuation, and otherwise, must be included in these clauses in order for them to be enforceable, otherwise, a Court will award the employee reasonable notice, which is often greatly enhanced over and above the statutory minimum.
Typically, the more advanced the age of an employee, the more difficult it will be to re-train for another career or find another job in a timely manner. Accordingly, employees of advanced age are typically awarded more severance pay that younger employees that have brighter job prospects.
3. Seniority in the Company
Executives are typically entitled to enhanced severance pay periods as compared to minimum wage or lower income workers as fewer comparable jobs are available to executive. As such, the severance package should be designed to bridge the employee in between employment. For an executive, the severance negotiation can come down to salary, benefits, equity compensation, pension payouts, and other forms of compensation.
Often, employers will seek to have an executive sign off on a severance offer without it being reviewed by an employment lawyer. It is important to ensure that your rights and entitlements are protected; as such, contact an employment lawyer in Ontario today for a free severance package review.